CPS Journal

Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrogen fertilization in initial maize development

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 82-89, 2018 (2018012)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018012

Authors: Tauane Santos Brito, Renan Pan, Elisiane Inês Dall’Oglio Chaves, and Vandeir Francisco Guimarães

Abstract: The objective of the present research was to evaluate the initial development of maize (Zea mays) inoculated with plant growth-promoting diazotrophic bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, Burkholderia ambifaria and Herbaspirillum seropedicae in vitro and in protected culture. The experiment in protected culture consisted in the comparison of four methods of nitrogen fertilizations in maize crop (absence, broadcast, placement, broadcast and placement) associated or not to inoculation with growth-promoting bacteria. Morphological parameters, foliar nitrogen content and bacterial population were evaluated at 30 and 45 days after sowing.  The in vitro essay consisted in the cultivation of inoculated plants in culture medium, with and without nitrogen and then, at seven days after seeding, evaluated morphological parameters, foliar nitrogen content and bacterial population. A. brasilense was more responsive to placement fertilization, while H. seropedicae for the association between placement and broadcast fertilization, or else the absence of fertilization. Yet, B. ambifaria was responsible to the absence of fertilization. Bacterial populations in protected culture varied according to the fertilization used and the period of collection. In vitro, the bacterial population was higher epiphytically.

Highlighted Conclusions

  1. A. brasilense is more responsive to placement fertilization, and B. ambifaria to the absence of fertilization. H. seropedicae is more responsive the association between placement and broadcast fertilization, or else the absence of fertilization.
  2. Bacterial populations vary according to the fertilization and the period of collection in protected culture, and they are higher epiphytically in vitro.

Keywords: Zea mays, Azospirillum brasilense, Burkholderia ambifariaHerbaspirillum seropedicae, Diazotrophic bacteria.

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Effect of rosemary, garlic, pepper and lemongrass extracts in postharvest of organic Brassica oleracea L. leaves

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 75-81, 2018 (2018011)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018011

Authors: Mayeve Didomenico Melo, William Gustavo Sganzerla, Guilherme Cruz Duarte, Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze, Ana Paula de Lima Veeck, and Paula Iaschitzki Ferreira

Abstract: The growing concern about food safety makes necessary to search for alternative methods of food conservation. The objective of this work was to evaluate postharvest conservation of kale leaf using aqueous vegetal extracts. The experimental design was completely randomized, with the concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of Rosmarinus officinalis, Allium sativum, Capsicum baccatum, Cymbopogon citratus and the control treatment using deionized water. The extracts were sprayed on kale leaves with manual spray over the entire adaxial and abaxial epidermis. The evaluated parameters were chlorophyll a and b, weight loss, total phenolics compounds, antioxidant activity and a visual analysis. The leaves remained at ambient temperature for six days. The results indicate that there was no significant conservation in the content of chlorophyll a, b and visual analysis when compared to the control, and the extracts did not have influence in the weight loss. There was an increase of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity with rosemary, lemongrass and pepper extracts, the garlic extract reduced the concentration of these bioactive compounds when compared to the control. In general, the application of the vegetal extracts did not influence in the postharvest conservation of kale leaves.

Highlighted Conclusion
The application of aqueous extracts in general does not influence positively postharvest conservation of kale leaves.

Keywords: Aqueous vegetal extracts, Postharvest, Storage, Kale.

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Plant populations and chemical weed control in soybean cross-sowing

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 69-74, 2018 (2018010)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018010

Authors: Ana Kelly Chornobay, Luiz Antonio Odenath Penha, and Renato Yagi

Abstract: In soybean production in Brazil, the ends often justify the means. The high marketing prices of grains have motivated producers to adopt new techniques for cultivation of the legume in an empirical way or without adequate scientific support. Thus, we hypothesized that soybean cross-sowing in equal populations or twice (as used in conventional sowing in parallel rows) may increase soybean yield and decrease weed infestation in crops. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the spatial arrangements of plants associated with the presence or absence of chemical treatment for weed control in the soybean crop. A randomized block design was used with five treatments (four replicates per treatment): 1) uncrossed with the recommended plant population; 2) crossed with the recommended plant population; 3) crossed with double the plant population; 4) crossed with the same plant population and without herbicide; and 5) crossed with double the plant population and without herbicide. Soybeans cross-sowed with the recommended plant population had the same growth as uncrossed soybeans in terms of height and dry matter of shoot and roots, but had a higher leaf area index. Moreover, root nodulation increased in number with soybeans cross-sowed with the recommended plant population and in mass for soybeans cross-sowed with double the plant population, without differences in indirect measures of chlorophyll. Thus, our findings suggested that cross-sowing with the recommended plant population or double the recommended plant population did not aid in weed control and did not increase the yield of soybean grains.

Highlighted Conclusion
Soybean cross-sowing with the recommended or double the recommended plant population does not aid in weed control or increase soybean grain yields.

Keywords: Glycine max (L.) Merr., Spatial arrangement, Plasticity. (more…)

Biochemical and sensory properties of Juçara pulp submitted to gamma radiation

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 62-68, 2018 (2018009)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018009

Authors: Paula Porrelli Moreira da Silva, Renata Cristina Casemiro, José Guilherme Prado Martin, Leandro Francisco Carmo, Vanessa Groppo-Ortiz, and Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

Abstract: There are no studies regarding the irradiation of juçara pulp with a view to their conservation. Therefore, this study pursued to test the conservation of juçara pulp submitted to gamma radiation at the doses 0.0 (control), 2.5, 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy, and analyzed in 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post irradiation. The samples were kept at 6 °C. We evaluate the bioactive compounds (anthocyanin and total phenolic), the enzymatic activity polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, and the sensorial quality (acceptance test with hedonic scale) of the samples. The results of the biochemical analyses were submitted to the regression test and the sensorial analysis to the Tukey’s test at p<0.05. The samples remained within the prevailing legal standards regarding the microbiological quality. The anthocyanin levels decreased during the first week and its reduction was inversely proportional to the dose increments. The phenolic compounds showed high values in the first day, with a reduction in the later period and a constant average to the end. The activity of PPO and POD enzymes decreased in all periods, regardless of the radiation dose applied. The gamma radiation did not affect juçara pulp sensorial quality.

Highlighted Conclusion
The gamma radiation affects the conservation and biochemical characteristics of juçara pulp under refrigeration, but it does not affect its sensorial quality.

Keywords: Euterpe edulis, Irradiation, Biochemical analyzes, Sensory quality, Shelf life. (more…)

Effect of hydration and dehydration cycles on Macroptilium atropurpureum seeds germination under water deficit conditions

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 55-61, 2018 (2018008)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018008

Authors: Ayslan Trindade Lima, Daianne Maria de Oliveira, and Marcos Vinicius Meiado

Abstract: The imbibition process, which is essential for seed germination, can be interrupted due to lack of water in the environment. Once this occurs, seeds have its germination process interrupted and loses the water absorbed to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydration and dehydration cycles (HD cycles) on seed germination of Macroptilium atropurpureum under water deficit conditions. Seeds of M. atropurpureum were submitted to 0 (control), 1, 2 and 3 HD cycles at different hydration times. In addition, the seeds were also submitted to osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9 MPa for water deficit simulation. Although the seeds germinated in all of the osmotic potentials used, the seeds presented a reduction in the percentage of germination, independently of the number of HD cycles and the hydration time between each cycle. In addition, HD cycles also negatively affected the mean germination rate, promoting a reduction of this parameter as seeds were submitted to HD cycles and osmotic potentials. Thus, the results demonstrated that HD cycles did not provide an increase in water stress tolerance in M. atropurpureum seeds during germination.

Highlighted Conclusions
1) Macroptilium atropurpureum seeds can germinate even in low osmotic potentials conditions.
2) Discontinuous hydration confers a negative effect on M. atropurpureum germination and does not provide a greater tolerance to water deficit.

Keywords: Siratro, Abiotic stress, Hydration and dehydration cycles, Semi-arid ecosystem, Caatinga. (more…)

Chemical treatment and storage period influence on physiological characteristics of maize seeds

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 48-54, 2018 (2018007)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018007

Authors: Fernando Scarati Frandoloso, Leandro Galon, André Dalponte Menegat, Felipe Bianchessi, Leonardo Chechi, César Tiago Forte, Altemir José Mossi and Ubirajara Russi Nunes

Abstract: The seeds physiological quality is a fundamental characteristic to obtain competitive and productive plants, where seeds treatment is an important tool to keep seeds physiological high-quality. The present study aimed to evaluate chemical treatments and storage period influence on seeds physiological quality. It was used a factorial (4 x12) randomized complete block design, with eight replications. In factor A, the chemicals (thiametoxan, metalaxyl + fludioxonil + thiabendazole and pyraclostrobin + methyl thiophanate + fipronil) and control. In the factor B, the treated seeds storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 90 days). The variables evaluated were vigor and germination, and the tests were performed at p≤0.05. The results indicate that the maize seeds vigor is maintained with the fungicide application, regardless of the vigor test used. As the treated seeds storage period increases, their vigor was reduced by the first count test. However, maize seeds germination was not influenced by seed treatment or storage period.

Highlighted Conclusions
1) The maize seeds vigor is maintained applying fungicides, regardless of the vigor test used.
2) The first count test indicates that the longer the untreated or treated maize seeds with thiametoxan are stored the lower the seed vigor.
3) Maize seeds germination is not influenced by the thiametoxan, metalaxyl + fludioxonil + thiabendazole and pyraclostrobin + methyl thiophanate + fipronil chemicals, not even by the storage period up to 90 days of treated seeds.

Keywords: Zea mays L., Germination, Vigor, Storage period. (more…)

Postharvest treatment with 1-MCP in apple ‘Gala’ mutants: physicochemical characterization, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p. 40-47, 2018 (2018006)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018006

Authors: William Gustavo Sganzerla, Mayeve Didomenico Melo, Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze, Ana Paula de Lima Veeck, Paula Iaschitzki Ferreira, and César Luis Girardi

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of 1-MCP on physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of ‘Gala’ apples mutants, harvested at two different times and maintained in refrigerated atmosphere (0 °C) during 90 days. ‘Mondial Gala’, ‘Imperial Gala’ and ‘Galaxy’ were obtained from commercial orchards. After harvesting, half of the fruits were treated with 1-MCP, and control fruits were maintained in the same condition, but without the treatment. Skin color, pulp firmness, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity were evaluated in peel and pulp. The results show that using 1-MCP, pulp firmness was higher than the control. Titratable acidity analysis showed statistical differences for apple clones, harvest point and treatment with 1-MCP. Total soluble solids content was not influenced by the treatments. Epidermis color was statistically influenced by clone (a*, L* and C*), and by harvest point (L*), but 1-MCP did not affect this parameter. The content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity was higher in the peel when compared to the pulp. 1-MCP proved to be effective in maintaining postharvest quality in all clones and at two harvest points tested.

Highlighted Conclusions
1) Refrigerated atmosphere during 90 days maintained the fruit quality.
2) Total phenolic compounds are higher in apple peel.
3) 1-MCP proved to be effective in maintaining postharvest quality.

Keywords: 1-methylcyclopropene, Total phenolic compounds, Refrigerated atmosphere, Mondial Gala, Imperial Gala, Galaxy. (more…)

Dynamic characters involved in grain yield and variability of wheat segregating populations

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.31-39, 2018 (2018005)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018005

Authors: Liamara Bahr Thurow, Raíssa Martins da Silva, Henrique Pasquetti Carbonari, Cristiano Stülp, Ricardo Garcia Figueiredo, Luciano Carlos da Maia, and Antonio Costa de Oliveira

Abstract: Wheat is the main source of carbohydrate for humanity, being the second most-produced cereal in the world. Brazil is not self-sufficient in this crop, and the Country needs to import wheat to supply the national demand. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of agronomic traits in wheat segregating populations in the F2 generation, and to estimate the genetic distance between the parents and the segregating populations. The populations 1 (Abalone x Fundacep Nova Era), 2 (Ônix x Fundacep Raízes), 3 (CD 104 x Fundacep Cristalino), 4 (Fundacep Cristalino x Fundacep Nova Era) and 5 (CD 104 x Fundacep Raízes) and parents (Abalone, CD 104, Fundacep Cristalino, Fundacep Nova Era, Ônix and Fundacep Raízes) were used. The traits Days from Emergency to flowering (DEF), plant height (PH), number of fertile tillers per plant (NFT), ear length (EL), ear mass (EM), number of grains per ear (NGE), grain mass per ear (GME), grain yield per plant (GYP) and ear harvest index (EHI) were measured. The population 5 showed the greatest stature and population 4 showed less variability for the trait. All populations showed averages of NFT and GYP higher than the parents, indicating the presence of transgressive segregants, or presence of dominance in these traits. The grain mass per ear is the trait that contributes most to the distance between the genotypes. There was the formation of four groups by Tocher’s grouping method and the population 3 is the most different to the parents, when considering all traits.

Highlighted Conclusion
There is genetic variability for traits within wheat segregating populations.

Keywords: Asymmetry, Kurtosis, Grains mass per ear, Number of fertile tillers, Triticum aestivum. (more…)

Simulated drift of herbicides applied alone and in tank mix in grapevine

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.22-30, 2018 (2018004)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018004

Authors: Clevison Luiz Giacobbo, Leandro Galon, André Ricardo Zeist, Sergio Guimarães, César Tiago Forte, Tiago Camponogara Tomazetti, Anderson Moraes de Lima, and Márcia Denise Rossarolla

Abstract: Our goal was to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of clomazone e glyphosate applied alone or in a tank mixture over grapevines of Merlot variety. The experiment was set in a randomized blocks design, arranged in a 3×4+1 factorial scheme, with four replications. In factor A, the herbicides clomazone, glyphosate and the clomazone + glyphosate tank mixture was allocated and in B, doses of the same herbicides, representing drift simulations, of: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended doses. In 14, 28, 46 and 100 days after treatment, we evaluated the phytotoxicity of herbicides over grapevines. We determined the characteristics related to the increase of vegetative growth at the time of the experiment set-up and at the end of the experiment (100 DAT). At 10 and 20 DAT we also determined the net assimilation of CO2 on grapevines that were treated with herbicides. The clomazone and the glyphosate applied either alone or in a tank mixture caused phytotoxicity in grapevine crops. The grapevine demonstrated to be sensitive, even to low herbicide doses, thus requiring caution when using pulverization of glyphosate, clomazone or the mixture of clomazone + glyphosate, in areas close to crops.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Clomazone caused the least phytotoxicity in grapevines.
2. The highest phytotoxicity was observed in the application of glyphosate and the mixture of clomazone + glyphosate.
3. The grapevines demonstrated to be sensitive to sub doses of herbicides.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera, Oryza sativa, Herbicide association. (more…)

Incidence of anthracnose in auxin-treated soybean plants and seedlings in laboratory and greenhouse conditions

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.15-21, 2018 (2018003)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018003

Authors: Renan Pan, Tauane Santos Brito, João Paulo Fonesi de Carvalho, Lenir Aparecida Buss, Idiana Marina Dalastra, and Marcia de Holanda Nozaki

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the incidence and severity of anthracnose on soybean plants and seedlings treated with coco-grass extract and 2,4-D. The samples of Colletotrichum sp. were distributed into petri dishes containing BDA medium. After replicate, the dishes were sealed with a plastic film and placed for growth in the BOD chamber at 27 ºC for one week, then performed a new replication. Ten soybean seeds were put into plastic boxes fully filled with autoclaved sand, using six replicates. Treatments consisted of spraying a solution of coco-grass extract or 2,4-D at concentrations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% on soybean seedlings and plants, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. An increase in the number of injured plants according to the increase of the concentration of the extract, where a smaller but not insignificant number of plants injured in the treatment 25% of coco-grass and the maximum value of injured plants in the highest concentration (100%) of this treatment.

Highlighted Conclusions
Auxin derived from coco-grass extract causes a greater susceptibility of soybean to anthracnosis.

Keywords: Glycine max, Plant disease, Hormone. (more…)