Dynamic characters involved in grain yield and variability of wheat segregating populations

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.31-39, 2018 (2018005)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018005

Authors: Liamara Bahr Thurow, Raíssa Martins da Silva, Henrique Pasquetti Carbonari, Cristiano Stülp, Ricardo Garcia Figueiredo, Luciano Carlos da Maia, and Antonio Costa de Oliveira

Abstract: Wheat is the main source of carbohydrate for humanity, being the second most-produced cereal in the world. Brazil is not self-sufficient in this crop, and the Country needs to import wheat to supply the national demand. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of agronomic traits in wheat segregating populations in the F2 generation, and to estimate the genetic distance between the parents and the segregating populations. The populations 1 (Abalone x Fundacep Nova Era), 2 (Ônix x Fundacep Raízes), 3 (CD 104 x Fundacep Cristalino), 4 (Fundacep Cristalino x Fundacep Nova Era) and 5 (CD 104 x Fundacep Raízes) and parents (Abalone, CD 104, Fundacep Cristalino, Fundacep Nova Era, Ônix and Fundacep Raízes) were used. The traits Days from Emergency to flowering (DEF), plant height (PH), number of fertile tillers per plant (NFT), ear length (EL), ear mass (EM), number of grains per ear (NGE), grain mass per ear (GME), grain yield per plant (GYP) and ear harvest index (EHI) were measured. The population 5 showed the greatest stature and population 4 showed less variability for the trait. All populations showed averages of NFT and GYP higher than the parents, indicating the presence of transgressive segregants, or presence of dominance in these traits. The grain mass per ear is the trait that contributes most to the distance between the genotypes. There was the formation of four groups by Tocher’s grouping method and the population 3 is the most different to the parents, when considering all traits.

Highlighted Conclusion
There is genetic variability for traits within wheat segregating populations.

Keywords: Asymmetry, Kurtosis, Grains mass per ear, Number of fertile tillers, Triticum aestivum. (more…)

Simulated drift of herbicides applied alone and in tank mix in grapevine

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.22-30, 2018 (2018004)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018004

Authors: Clevison Luiz Giacobbo, Leandro Galon, André Ricardo Zeist, Sergio Guimarães, César Tiago Forte, Tiago Camponogara Tomazetti, Anderson Moraes de Lima, and Márcia Denise Rossarolla

Abstract: Our goal was to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of clomazone e glyphosate applied alone or in a tank mixture over grapevines of Merlot variety. The experiment was set in a randomized blocks design, arranged in a 3×4+1 factorial scheme, with four replications. In factor A, the herbicides clomazone, glyphosate and the clomazone + glyphosate tank mixture was allocated and in B, doses of the same herbicides, representing drift simulations, of: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended doses. In 14, 28, 46 and 100 days after treatment, we evaluated the phytotoxicity of herbicides over grapevines. We determined the characteristics related to the increase of vegetative growth at the time of the experiment set-up and at the end of the experiment (100 DAT). At 10 and 20 DAT we also determined the net assimilation of CO2 on grapevines that were treated with herbicides. The clomazone and the glyphosate applied either alone or in a tank mixture caused phytotoxicity in grapevine crops. The grapevine demonstrated to be sensitive, even to low herbicide doses, thus requiring caution when using pulverization of glyphosate, clomazone or the mixture of clomazone + glyphosate, in areas close to crops.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Clomazone caused the least phytotoxicity in grapevines.
2. The highest phytotoxicity was observed in the application of glyphosate and the mixture of clomazone + glyphosate.
3. The grapevines demonstrated to be sensitive to sub doses of herbicides.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera, Oryza sativa, Herbicide association. (more…)

Incidence of anthracnose in auxin-treated soybean plants and seedlings in laboratory and greenhouse conditions

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.15-21, 2018 (2018003)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018003

Authors: Renan Pan, Tauane Santos Brito, João Paulo Fonesi de Carvalho, Lenir Aparecida Buss, Idiana Marina Dalastra, and Marcia de Holanda Nozaki

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the incidence and severity of anthracnose on soybean plants and seedlings treated with coco-grass extract and 2,4-D. The samples of Colletotrichum sp. were distributed into petri dishes containing BDA medium. After replicate, the dishes were sealed with a plastic film and placed for growth in the BOD chamber at 27 ºC for one week, then performed a new replication. Ten soybean seeds were put into plastic boxes fully filled with autoclaved sand, using six replicates. Treatments consisted of spraying a solution of coco-grass extract or 2,4-D at concentrations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% on soybean seedlings and plants, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. An increase in the number of injured plants according to the increase of the concentration of the extract, where a smaller but not insignificant number of plants injured in the treatment 25% of coco-grass and the maximum value of injured plants in the highest concentration (100%) of this treatment.

Highlighted Conclusions
Auxin derived from coco-grass extract causes a greater susceptibility of soybean to anthracnosis.

Keywords: Glycine max, Plant disease, Hormone. (more…)

Metabolomics, biomass and lignocellulosic total sugars analysis in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) inoculated with different combinations of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhiza

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.8-14, 2018 (2018002)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018002

Authors: Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, and Wusirika Ramakrishna

Abstract: Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is the second most widely produced millet with potential as a biofuel source. Employment of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and mycorrhiza could serve as environment-friendly alternatives for the use of excessive NPK fertilizers and producing biofuel. The highest increase of biomass was associated with endomycorrhiza combined with PGPB in comparison to control. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis detected 28 metabolites in foxtail shoot with most of them upregulated in ecto/endomycorrhiza group and combined with PGPB. The upregulation of metabolites associated with synthesis of amino acids correlated positively with biomass. The inoculation with both PGPB and endomycorrhiza gave the best results with reference to total sugar yield. Our study indicates that PGPB and endomycorrhiza combination is well suited for enhancing biomass and boosting sugar yield, which are useful attributes for utilizing foxtail millet as a biofuel source.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Effect of PGPB and mycorrhiza on foxtail millet biomass, metabolites and total sugars was studied.
2. Biomass and total sugars increased by combined PGPB and endomycorrhiza treatment.
3. Higher biomass correlated positively with metabolites associated with amino acid biosynthesis.

Keywords: Plant growth promoting bacteria, Mycorrhiza, Foxtail millet, Metabolomics, Total sugars. (more…)

Nutritional, physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of uvaia pulp (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess)

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 8, p.1-7, 2018 (2018001)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2018001

Authors: William Gustavo Sganzerla, Patrícia Carolina Beling, Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze, Roberto Akitoshi Komatsu, Michael Ramos Nunes, and Ana Paula de Lima Veeck

Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional, physicochemical and antimicrobial characteristics of Uvaia pulp in aqueous, ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts. We evaluate the bioactive compounds (phenolics and flavonoid), antioxidant activity by three different methods (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP), and antimicrobial activity using four different bacteria. The results show that uvaia pulp presents a TTA of 0.75 mg of citric acid 100 g-1 and the pH of 3.45, characterizing like an acid fruit. Hydroethanolic extract presented more bioactive compounds (total phenolics: 189.41 mg GAE 100 g-1; flavonoids 0.42 mg QE 100 g-1) and more antioxidant capacity by DPPH (1,600.50 mg TEAC 100 g-1) and ABTS (342.11 mg TEAC 100 g-1) assay and by Pearson’s correlation coefficient, they present positive correlation with statistical difference (p<0.01 and p<0,05). But the uvaia extracts did not present antimicrobial activity towards the bacteria tested.

Highlighted Conclusion
Uvaia pulp has great nutritional and physicochemical properties, and presents antioxidant activity being a rich source of natural bioactive compounds, may be applying in processed products as jellies and juices.

Keywords: Chemical composition, Native fruits, Bioactive compounds. (more…)

Can herbicides increase the content of crude protein in corn silage?

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 3-4, p.62-64, 2017 (2017010)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2017010

Authors: Adrian Rauy Lopes, Fábio Augusto Manetti, and Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

Abstract: The objective was to determine the impact of herbicides on plant growth and to test if the use of herbicides could improve the crude protein content in corn for silage. Treatments consisted of the post-emergence application of atrazine, atrazine + 2,4-D (two doses) and tembotrione, in addition to a herbicide-free control. We evaluated plant growth and crude protein content. Reduction of plant height (15%), fresh mass (35%) and dry mass (45%) was observed by using atrazine and atrazine + 2,4-D. However, we also observed an increase (mean of 82%) of crude protein content by using these herbicides. In addition, atrazine provided the higher improvement (124%) in the crude protein content. So, the post-emergence application of atrazine alone or combined with 2,4-D reduced plant growth however improving the content of crude protein.

Highlighted Conclusion
Atrazine can double the content of crude protein in corn for silage.

Keywords: Atrazine, Post-emergence, Zea mays, Silage quality.

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Influence of post-emergence herbicides on major grass weeds and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Gedo and Shambo, Western Oromia

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 3-4, p.55-61, 2017 (2017009)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2017009

Authors: Megersa Kebede, Geleta Gerama, Tigist Bidira, and Chemeda Birhanu

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate post-emergence herbicides for weed management and grain yield of wheat at Shambo and Gedo, Sub-station of Bako Agricultural Research center during summer season of 2014/2015. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of four post-emergence herbicides; Pyroxsulam, Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 6.9%, Clodinafop-propargyl and Pinoxaden 45 g L-1 + Cloquintocet Mexyl, and Hand weeding and weedy check were used for comparison. Results of the experiment depicted that Significantly lowest total weed population (11.33 m-2) and (11.00 m-2) and maximum grain yield of (3460.3 and 3254.0 kg ha-1) with (56.9 and 51.7%) increase in grain yield over weedy check was recorded in Plots treated with Pyroxsulam at the rate of 0.5 L ha-1 at Shambo and Gedo sites, respectively. Additionally, the lowest total weed dry weight of (5.8 and 5.2 g m-2) with highest herbicide control efficiency (75.9% and 77.3%) was recorded for Pyroxsulam followed by two times hand weeded plot at these respective locations. In contrary, the highest weed population (45.20 m-2) and (45.53 m-2) and lowest grain yield (1492.1 kg ha-1) and (1571.4 kg ha-1) was obtained from weedy check at Shambo and Gedo, respectively. Thus, from the result Pyroxsulam was recommended as effective and feasible post-emergence herbicide to control major grass and other weed species in a wheat field in study areas.

Highlighted Conclusion
Post-emergence herbicides provided better weed efficacy and boosted grain yield. Among tested herbicides, Pyroxsulam provided significant control of weeds causing significant reduction in density of target weed flora and also significantly improved the grain yield in comparison with other herbicides and weedy check.

Keywords: Evaluation, Grain yield, Weed reduction, Weed species.

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Physico-chemical and bioactive compounds characterization of apple ‘Gala’ mutants harvested at two different time points

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 3-4, p.49-54, 2017 (2017008)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2017008

Authors: Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze, Marcel Piovezan, Mércia Maguerroski Castilho, Ana Paula de Lima Veeck, and Cesar Luis Girardi

Abstract: In the past years, new apple clones have been propagated on a large scale for their flavor characteristics and greater red color presence in the epidermis, which provide commercial advantages in national and international markets. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of ‘Galaxy’, ‘Imperial Gala’ and ‘Mondial Gala’ apples harvested in the city of Vacaria, RS, Brazil in two diferent harvesting time. The analyzed variables were pulp firmness (PF), total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), iodine-starch (IA), skin color (L*a*b*), total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of pulp and peel. The results obtained at the time of harvest show that the parameters of pulp firmness, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel presented a highly significant difference between the clones studied. The cultivar ‘Mondial Gala’ showed a different behavior from the other clones, in the values of firmness of pulp, acidity and total soluble solids, showing that these fruits were at a stage of maturation less advanced, ideal for long-term storage. The levels of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in the peel when compared to the pulp for the three clones and for the two harvest times. However, anthocyanin levels were higher for the Mondial Gala clone in both harvests, although anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were better at harvest 2 for all clones, results that collaborate with more intense red color and thus better commercial quality.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Fruit quality varies on the clone studied.
2. ‘Mondial Gala’ fruits are ideal for long-term storage and have more intense red color and better commercial quality.
3. The peel shows a higher total polyphenols and a better antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Apple ‘Gala’, ‘Gala’ mutants, Storage, Nutraceutical quality.

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Differential influence of shoot extracts of winter cover crops on seed germination of corn, soybean and indicator plants

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.44-48, 2017 (2017007)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2017007

Authors: Mirian Fracasso Fabiani, Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho, and Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

Abstract: The objective was to test the response of summer crops (Zea mays and Glycine max) and indicator plants to exposure to extracts of winter cover crops (Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum) regarding on seed germination. Bioassays were carried out to test six shoot extract concentrations, by using germitest paper maintained in controlled conditions. Zea mays, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Phalaris canariensis showed differential response to exposure to shoot extracts of Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum regarding on seed germination. Shoot extracts of Avena sativa and Lolium multiflorum increased seed germination while shoot extract of Triticum aestivum reduced seed germination of Zea mays. Shoot extracts of Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum reduced seed germination of Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Phalaris canariensis.

Highlighted Conclusion
Winter cover crops can show different allelopathic potential on summer crops.

Keywords: Allelopathic potential, Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum, Triticum aestivum, Summer crops, Major crops.

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A testimony of inter-plant communication through electrophysiological signal analysis

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.34-43, 2017 (2017006)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26814/cps2017006

Authors: Kavya Sai Yaddanapudia, Neetu Soodb, and Indu Sainic

Abstract: Plant responses to changes in environment are allied with electrical excitability, signaling and are observed by their electrophysiological signals. Similarly communication in between various plants is noticed by continuous monitoring of their electrophysiological signals at same instant comparatively. Signal acquisition is done with help of BIOPAC®MP36 set up. Two plants of different species connected to two different channels at a time clearly visualized the amplitudes and frequencies with which plants pulsated during their sensory perception, communication and adaptation to eventual stimuli. The variation in signal potentials of plants depend upon intensity of stimulus perceived either from environment or neighboring plant. They communicate with each other through electrical signals using air as a medium; they are conscious enough to aware neighborhood about hazards and threats. This paper presents in detail the potential and frequency variations that plants illustrate during Inter-plant communication.

Highlighted Conclusion
The meticulous sensory perception of plants when they endure mechanical, heat and chemical stimuli clearly revealed that plants are highly sensitive to environmental changes. The communication in plants is not only intra-specific but from experimental results it is concluded that plants are good enough in stress/danger perception and self-defense clearly inter-plant communication exists.

Keywords: Action potential, Variation potential, Amplitude, Frequency, Depolarization, Hyperpolarization.

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