Can herbicides increase the content of crude protein in corn silage?

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 3-4, p.62-64, 2017 (2017010)


Authors: Adrian Rauy Lopes, Fábio Augusto Manetti, and Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

Abstract: The objective was to determine the impact of herbicides on plant growth and to test if the use of herbicides could improve the crude protein content in corn for silage. Treatments consisted of the post-emergence application of atrazine, atrazine + 2,4-D (two doses) and tembotrione, in addition to a herbicide-free control. We evaluated plant growth and crude protein content. Reduction of plant height (15%), fresh mass (35%) and dry mass (45%) was observed by using atrazine and atrazine + 2,4-D. However, we also observed an increase (mean of 82%) of crude protein content by using these herbicides. In addition, atrazine provided the higher improvement (124%) in the crude protein content. So, the post-emergence application of atrazine alone or combined with 2,4-D reduced plant growth however improving the content of crude protein.

Highlighted Conclusion
Atrazine can double the content of crude protein in corn for silage.

Keywords: Atrazine, Post-emergence, Zea mays, Silage quality.

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Influence of post-emergence herbicides on major grass weeds and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Gedo and Shambo, Western Oromia

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 3-4, p.55-61, 2017 (2017009)


Authors: Megersa Kebede, Geleta Gerama, Tigist Bidira, and Chemeda Birhanu

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate post-emergence herbicides for weed management and grain yield of wheat at Shambo and Gedo, Sub-station of Bako Agricultural Research center during summer season of 2014/2015. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of four post-emergence herbicides; Pyroxsulam, Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 6.9%, Clodinafop-propargyl and Pinoxaden 45 g L-1 + Cloquintocet Mexyl, and Hand weeding and weedy check were used for comparison. Results of the experiment depicted that Significantly lowest total weed population (11.33 m-2) and (11.00 m-2) and maximum grain yield of (3460.3 and 3254.0 kg ha-1) with (56.9 and 51.7%) increase in grain yield over weedy check was recorded in Plots treated with Pyroxsulam at the rate of 0.5 L ha-1 at Shambo and Gedo sites, respectively. Additionally, the lowest total weed dry weight of (5.8 and 5.2 g m-2) with highest herbicide control efficiency (75.9% and 77.3%) was recorded for Pyroxsulam followed by two times hand weeded plot at these respective locations. In contrary, the highest weed population (45.20 m-2) and (45.53 m-2) and lowest grain yield (1492.1 kg ha-1) and (1571.4 kg ha-1) was obtained from weedy check at Shambo and Gedo, respectively. Thus, from the result Pyroxsulam was recommended as effective and feasible post-emergence herbicide to control major grass and other weed species in a wheat field in study areas.

Highlighted Conclusion
Post-emergence herbicides provided better weed efficacy and boosted grain yield. Among tested herbicides, Pyroxsulam provided significant control of weeds causing significant reduction in density of target weed flora and also significantly improved the grain yield in comparison with other herbicides and weedy check.

Keywords: Evaluation, Grain yield, Weed reduction, Weed species.

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Physico-chemical and bioactive compounds characterization of apple ‘Gala’ mutants harvested at two different time points

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 3-4, p.49-54, 2017 (2017008)


Authors: Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze, Marcel Piovezan, Mércia Maguerroski Castilho, Ana Paula de Lima Veeck, and Cesar Luis Girardi

Abstract: In the past years, new apple clones have been propagated on a large scale for their flavor characteristics and greater red color presence in the epidermis, which provide commercial advantages in national and international markets. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of ‘Galaxy’, ‘Imperial Gala’ and ‘Mondial Gala’ apples harvested in the city of Vacaria, RS, Brazil in two diferent harvesting time. The analyzed variables were pulp firmness (PF), total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), iodine-starch (IA), skin color (L*a*b*), total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of pulp and peel. The results obtained at the time of harvest show that the parameters of pulp firmness, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel presented a highly significant difference between the clones studied. The cultivar ‘Mondial Gala’ showed a different behavior from the other clones, in the values of firmness of pulp, acidity and total soluble solids, showing that these fruits were at a stage of maturation less advanced, ideal for long-term storage. The levels of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in the peel when compared to the pulp for the three clones and for the two harvest times. However, anthocyanin levels were higher for the Mondial Gala clone in both harvests, although anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were better at harvest 2 for all clones, results that collaborate with more intense red color and thus better commercial quality.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Fruit quality varies on the clone studied.
2. ‘Mondial Gala’ fruits are ideal for long-term storage and have more intense red color and better commercial quality.
3. The peel shows a higher total polyphenols and a better antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Apple ‘Gala’, ‘Gala’ mutants, Storage, Nutraceutical quality.

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Differential influence of shoot extracts of winter cover crops on seed germination of corn, soybean and indicator plants

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.44-48, 2017 (2017007)


Authors: Mirian Fracasso Fabiani, Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho, and Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

Abstract: The objective was to test the response of summer crops (Zea mays and Glycine max) and indicator plants to exposure to extracts of winter cover crops (Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum) regarding on seed germination. Bioassays were carried out to test six shoot extract concentrations, by using germitest paper maintained in controlled conditions. Zea mays, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Phalaris canariensis showed differential response to exposure to shoot extracts of Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum regarding on seed germination. Shoot extracts of Avena sativa and Lolium multiflorum increased seed germination while shoot extract of Triticum aestivum reduced seed germination of Zea mays. Shoot extracts of Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum and Triticum aestivum reduced seed germination of Glycine max, Lactuca sativa and Phalaris canariensis.

Highlighted Conclusion
Winter cover crops can show different allelopathic potential on summer crops.

Keywords: Allelopathic potential, Avena sativa, Lolium multiflorum, Triticum aestivum, Summer crops, Major crops.

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A testimony of inter-plant communication through electrophysiological signal analysis

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.34-43, 2017 (2017006)


Authors: Kavya Sai Yaddanapudia, Neetu Soodb, and Indu Sainic

Abstract: Plant responses to changes in environment are allied with electrical excitability, signaling and are observed by their electrophysiological signals. Similarly communication in between various plants is noticed by continuous monitoring of their electrophysiological signals at same instant comparatively. Signal acquisition is done with help of BIOPAC®MP36 set up. Two plants of different species connected to two different channels at a time clearly visualized the amplitudes and frequencies with which plants pulsated during their sensory perception, communication and adaptation to eventual stimuli. The variation in signal potentials of plants depend upon intensity of stimulus perceived either from environment or neighboring plant. They communicate with each other through electrical signals using air as a medium; they are conscious enough to aware neighborhood about hazards and threats. This paper presents in detail the potential and frequency variations that plants illustrate during Inter-plant communication.

Highlighted Conclusion
The meticulous sensory perception of plants when they endure mechanical, heat and chemical stimuli clearly revealed that plants are highly sensitive to environmental changes. The communication in plants is not only intra-specific but from experimental results it is concluded that plants are good enough in stress/danger perception and self-defense clearly inter-plant communication exists.

Keywords: Action potential, Variation potential, Amplitude, Frequency, Depolarization, Hyperpolarization.

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Path analysis and traits correlation in soybean

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.27-33, 2017 (2017005)


Full title: Path analysis and traits correlation in soybean

Authors: Fabiano Faria Bisinotto, Osvaldo Toshiuki Hamawaki, Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Raphael Lemes Hamawaki, Jacqueline Siqueira Glansenapp, and Cristiane Lemes Hamawaki

Abstract: This work aimed to study agronomic traits of soybean genotypes by path analysis and correlation estimates. We have used a randomized complete block design to assess 35 soybean genotypes with three replications, which 31 lines were from the breeding program of the Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil, plus four commercial cultivars. We have assessed features number of days to the blooming, plant height at blooming, number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, first pod height, number of nodes on the main stem at maturity, number of pods with one, two and three seeds per plant, total number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and grain yield. The features plant height at maturity and number of nodes at maturity have presented significant correlations phenotypic and genotypic positive. 100-seed weight was positively correlated with grain yield shown high direct phenotypic and genotypic effects being, therefore, useful for indirect selection aiming the grain yield increase.

Highlighted Conclusion
The approaches correlation and path analysis of agronomic traits of major importance in soybean lines are efficient in assessing interconnections between yield and other agronomic traits in soybean. The features plant height at maturity and number of nodes are positively correlated. 100-seed weight is positively correlated to grain yield, and correlations between the number of days to the blooming and average weight of 100 seeds are negative.

Keywords: Glycine max, Grain yield, Agronomic traits.

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Plant phenolic compounds and health benefits

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 12-, p.20-26, 2017 (2017004)


Authors: Oluwole Oladeji and Funmilayo Adelowo

Abstract: The growing rate of the activities of microbes increases every day. Virtually everything that surrounds man are contaminated and polluted with these microbes. These contaminations have led to some infectious and contagious diseases some of which are curable and others deadly. The advancement in Science and Technology have helped reduced this problems to certain level. In doing this, different researches have been carried out on medicinal plants in order to combat these problems.  In this research, phenolic compounds were found broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. They are reactive metabolites in a wide range of plant-derived foods and mainly divided in four groups: phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and tannins. They work as terminators of free radicals and chelators of metal ions that are capable of catalyzing lipid oxidation. Therefore, this review examines the functional properties of phenolics and their health benefits.

Highlighted Conclusion
The introduction of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that are environmental friendly and non-pollutant or contaminate the environment are inevitable.

Keywords: Chelators, Free radicals, Lipid oxidation, Microbes, Phenolics, Phenolic compounds, Secondary metabolites.

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Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Borneo ironwood

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.15-19, 2017 (2017003)


Authors: Gibson Entuni and Rebicca Edward

Abstract: Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Eusideroxylon zwageri, an endangered and hardest timber tree species in Borneo tropical rainforest, was initiated from immature leaves. Embryogenic callus cultures were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 3% sucrose, 0.24% Gelrite, and various concentrations and combinations of BAP, NAA and GA3 after 4 weeks of culture in darkness. A higher response (76%) of embryogenic callus was induced on MS medium with 1.0 mg L-1 BAP, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 1.0 mg L-1 GA3. Higher numbers of globular- (31), heart- (30), torpedo-(28), and cotyledon-stage (25) embryos per explant were obtained by culturing embryogenic callus on MS with 3% sucrose, 0.24% Gelrite without plant growth regulators after 8 weeks culture in darkness. These results on the induction of indirect somatic embryo in E. zwageri could be used for mass propagation and to select useful traits of this tree species at the cellular level. However, further work needs to be done on the conversion of the regenerated embryos.

Highlighted Conclusion
Murashige-Skoog medium is effective for the induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in Eusideroxylon zwageri by using leaf as the main source of the explant.

Keywords: Eusideroxylon zwageri, Embryogenic callus, Timber, Somatic embryos.

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Anatomical variations in stomatal attributes of selected species of family Asteraceae

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.10-14, 2017 (2017002)


Authors: Muhammad Asif Tahir, Rizwan Sarwar, Sajid Safeer, Imran Hamza, and Muhammad Faraz Khan

Abstract: In order to document stomatal characters which are significant in taxonomy, a detailed microscopic study on leaf epidermis of the selected taxa from Asteraceae was carried out. The plant species were Sonchus oleraceus, Bidens bipinnata, Centaurea iberica, Conyza bonariensis, Helianthus annuus, Lectuca serriola, Parthenium hysterophorus, Tagetes erecta, Cosmos sulphureus, Launaea procumbens, Zinnia elegan, Galinsoga parviflora and Conyza canadensis. All the species were amphistomatic and four types of stomata i.e., tetracytic, anomocytic, anisocytic and tricytic were recognized. Tetracytic stomatal type was dominant followed by anomocytic. Stomatal density was high on abaxial epidermis than adaxial epidermis except in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis. Highest stomatal density was in Tagetes erecta while lowest in Conyza canadensis. In lower epidermis stomatal index was higher in Sonchus oleraceus followed by Bidens bipinnata and Tagetes erecta while in upper epidermis highest index was shown by Cosmos sulphureus. Stomatal aperture and guard cell size and density were also significant features in these species.

Highlighted Conclusion
The study indicates the significance of micromorphological characters in identification of plant species.

Keywords: Stomata, Asteraceae, Epidermis, Taxa, Pakistan.

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A review on Tridax procumbens: a weed with immense phytochemical and pharmacological activities

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 7, issues 1-2, p.1-9, 2017 (2017001)


Authors: Funmilayo Adelowo and Oluwole Oladeji

Abstract: Medicinal plants have provided mankind a large variety of potent drugs to alleviate or eradicate infections and suffering from diseases in spite of advancement in synthetic drugs, some of the plant-derived drugs still retained their importance and relevance. The use of plant-based drugs all over world is increasing. Natural products derived from plants for the treatment of diseases have proved that nature stands a golden mark to show the relationship between the interrelationship between man and his environment. The researches and utilization of herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases increases every day. There have been records of advances made in the modern medicine there are still a large number of ailments or diseases for which suitable drugs are yet to be found. This has brought an urgent need to develop safer drugs for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, diabetes, liver diseases, and gastrointestinal disorder. Tridax procumbens is a highly valuable drug and well known for number of pharmacological activities like wound healing, antidiabetic activity, hypotensive effect, immune-modulating property amongst other. Therefore, the phytochemical and pharmacological activities should be investigated.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Tridax procumbens is commonly regarded as weed in most part of Africa continents and are known for its pharmacological activity.
2. The application of the plant are immense such as pharmacological activities, hepatoprotective effect, immunomodulating property, wound healing activity, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, bronchial catarrh, diarrheal and dysentery.
3. Analysis revealed the presence of the biomolecules such as anthraquinone, catachol, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpernoids.
4. Tridax procumbens also desire development of novel therapeutic agents from the various types of compounds with diverse pharmacologic properties isolated from it.
5. Therefore, more work (study) should be encourage in direction of more pharmacological activities of Tridax procumbens and to elucidate the structures of the phytochemicals responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant.

Keywords: Herbal medicine, Medicinal plant, Natural product, Pharmacological, Phytochemical, Synthetic drugs.

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