Biology of germination of Solanum americanum: a weed ascending in Brazilian crops
Milena Barretta Franceschetti1, Leandro Galon1, Ubirajara Russi Nunes2, Rodrigo Roso2, André Dalponte Menegat1, Leonardo Brunetto1, Geovana Facco Barbieri2, Alessandra Gallina1 and Cesar Tiago Forte2
1Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Erechim, RS, Brasil.
2Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.
Solanum americanum is a weed found in many important crops and is characterized by high production of fruits and seeds. Knowledge of the biology of the species is essential for efficient weed control so that the best control strategies and combinations thereof can be developed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the environmental factors that affect germination and emergence of S. americanum. Six experiments were conducted in the laboratory, simulating field situations in which germination was tested under different pH conditions, osmotic and saline stress, the effect of aluminum content, and different covers and straw levels. Germination and seedling emergence were evaluated, depending on the objectives of the experiment. We found that the germination changed according to the increase in salinity and the decrease in osmotic potential of the soil. The same was observed to the soil cover and its levels, as the emergence rate decreased with the increase in the amount of straw. Germination was reduced at alkaline pH (9-10). Aluminum had no effect on germination, only on normal seed development.
1. Increasing the amount of straw in the soil reduced the germination of S. americanum.
2. At alkaline pH, germination of S. americanum was reduced.
3. Aluminum had a negative influence on the development of S. americanum.