Black pepper production by small farmers

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 81-83, 2019 (2019013)

Growing of black pepper by small farmers in the city of Capitão Poço, PA, Brazil

Letícia do Socorro Cunha*, Luane Laíse Oliveira Ribeiro, Felipe Cunha do Rego, Francisco Lailson da Silva de Oliveira, Alysson Oliveira de Carvalho, Luã Souza de Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius Reis de Oliveira Junior, Jéssica da Silva Schimidt, Fernanda Ludmyla Barbosa de Souza, Emerson Fey, Wanderson Cunha Pereira and Francisca das Chagas Bezerra de Araújo
*Correspondence to: leticiacunhaufra2013@hotmail

Abstract: The objective of this work was to conduct a study on the cultivation of black pepper by small farmers in the city of Capitão Poço / PA. The research was developed based on the application of semi-structured questionnaires, in order to identify the form of cultivation of black pepper in the municipality carried out by family farmers, where a total of 50 producers were interviewed, and this sample was defined based on amount of small producers in the municipality. In addition, other resources were used, such as photographic records, audio recording, notes in field notebooks and direct and indirect observations, which also supported the research. Most respondents (46%) have been producing black pepper for over ten years, and 38% have reported growing the crop between five and ten years, 54% of producers said that the cultivation practice of the crop was adhered to. income supplementation and 32% said it was a passed on activity from father to son and the main variety cultivated by farmers (56%) is kotanadan. Thus, it was found that the main factor of cultivation of black pepper, is the complementation of income of small producers, using the variety kotanadan, because it is easily accessible in family farming of the studied region.

Highlighted Conclusions
The main factor for cultivation of black pepper var. kotanadan is the supplementation of income of familiar producers.

Keywords: Producers, Income, Varieties. (more…)

Post-harvesting of roses

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 70-80, 2019 (2019012)

Post-harvest preservation of roses cv. Ipanema

Simone Lyn Van Oene, Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz, Tauane Santos Brito and Renan Pan*
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: Roses are highly perishable cut flowers that demand an adequate post-harvest management seeking the maintenance of quality and reduction of post-harvest losses. Among the most used manipulations, stand out the complete cold chain, as in the producer as in the transport and storage in Garden centers, supermarkets and flower shops, besides, it can be mentioned as the most important management the use of conserving solutions, which have been proving increasingly important for the maintenance of longevity and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate three product lines offered by the Chrysal Premium Flower Care®, which has different functions and must be used in the three stages of the cut roses chain, post-harvest, transport/storage and final consumer. During the study was considered the real farm logistic, harvest, storage, transport, sale to wholesaler “and purchase by the final consumer, in a way to approximate the producer from the result of the study and show in a practical way the efficacy of the use of conserving solutions for the maintenance of cut roses. The experiment had five treatments with two replicates each, the evaluations were carried until the end of the flower’s shelf life and consisted in: turgescence, bent neck, petals darkening, flower opening, fresh mass evaluation and water absorption. It is concluded that the operations of harvest and transport are of crucial importance in the maintenance of the longevity and quality of roses, however, it must be allied to an adequate post-harvest treatment, the investment takes the producer to opt to not use or use only one preservative. It was also concluded that the post-harvest treatment is the most indicated increasing the pot life of the stems when compared to other treatments.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Harvest and transport operations essential for maintenance of longevity and quality of roses.
2. Operations of harvest and transport of roses must be proceeded by an adequate post-harvest treatment.

Keywords: Rosa sp., Cut flowers, Flower shelf life, Flower pot life. (more…)

Pests and diseases in pepper familiar production

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 66-69, 2019 (2019011)

Main pests and diseases affecting black pepper in family production systems in Capitão Poço, Pará, Brazil

Luane Laíse Oliveira Ribeiro, Letícia do Socorro Cunha, Felipe Cunha do Rego, Francisco Lailson da Silva de Oliveira, Alysson Oliveira de Carvalho, Luã Souza de Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius Reis de Oliveira Junior, Jéssica da Silva Schimidt, Fernanda Ludmyla Barbosa de Souza, Emerson Fey, Wanderson Cunha Pereira and Francisca das Chagas Bezerra
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: One of the main problems faced by black pepper crop in the state of Pará is the phytosanitary attack that, if not controlled and / or avoided, can cause serious damages to the crop, causing productivity and financial losses for family farmers. In the city of Capitão Poço, state of Pará, pipericutura is one of the activities that contributes to complement the income of family producers, since they also work with other agricultural species. This study aimed to make a survey of the main pests and diseases most commonly found in black pepper crop by reflecting on the control methods used by family farmers in the city of Capitão Poço/PA. To collect the information, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 50 family farmers in the municipality, in order to identify the main phytosanitary problems faced by family producers during the cultivation of black pepper and the most used forms of control. The most common pests and diseases are aphis (70%) and mealybugs (8%) and fusarium (80%) and bacterial halo (14%) respectively, and the use of chemicals is the main form of control used. The need for the use of new techniques that minimize and / or replace chemical control is notorious, and public and private institutions may be acting in this direction, with the development of research and its dissemination, presenting other prevention and control alternatives that can be used. meet the wishes of the municipality’s producers.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The main pests and diseases that attack the cultivation of black pepper are aphids, mealybugs, fusariosis and burning wire, using the chemical method of control.
2. It is necessary to use alternative and more sustainable techniques for pest and disease prevention and control and public and private institutions may be acting with the producers of the municipality in this aspect.

Keywords: Phytosanitary attack, Chemical control, Pipericulture. (more…)

Path analysis on oat

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 59-65, 2019 (2019010)

Path analysis on traits associated with oat milling yield

Cezar Verdi, Vianei Rother, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Liamara Bahr Thurow, Rafael Nornberg, Victoria Freitas de Oliveira, Luciano Carlos da Maia and Antonio Costa de Oliveira
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: Oat is an important winter cereal used for food and feed. The industrial crop yield is an important parameter to characterize the quality of the grain and the conversion of this in processed products. Thus, this study aimed to identify the phenotypic inter-relations of cause and effect between traits associated with the industrial yield of oat. The experiment was conducted in the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014 in the experimental area of the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, belonging to the Federal University of Pelotas. The experimental design was a randomized block, arranged in a factorial design, two (harvests) x 20 (genotypes), arranged in six replications. The oat genotypes formed different phenotypic classes for the measured traits. The industrial yield is directly associated with the test weight, grain yield and grain index. Phenotypic associations can be efficiently used in breeding programs aiming at oat indirect selection to improve industrial performance.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Different phenotypic classes are observed for the measured traits.
2. Milling yield is associated with the hectoliter weight, grain yield and grain index.
3. The milling yield can be improved by indirect selection.

Keywords: Avena sativa L., Industrial quality, Test weight, Grain yield, Grain index. (more…)

Fleabane control after maize harvest

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 53-58, 2019 (2019009)

Management of Sumatran fleabane after maize harvest in the fallow period shorter than 60 days

Antonio Mendes de Oliveira Neto*, Jamil Constantin, Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Júnior, Naiara Guerra, Eder Blainski and Hugo de Almeida Dan
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: Sumatran fleabane is an important weed in Brazilian crop production systems due to glyphosate resistance and broad adaptation to no-till environments, mainly in the crop succession with soybean sowed in first-season (September to February) followed by maize in second-season (February to June). The fallow period between maize harvest and the next soybean sowing allows Sumatran fleabane to emerge and grow. On the other side, fallow is a suitable moment for Sumatran fleabane control because plants are more susceptible to herbicide in initial stages of growth. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the effectiveness on combined burndown + residual herbicide treatments to control Sumatran fleabane during fallow, after maize harvest. Two experiments were carried out in Campina da Lagoa (PR) and Floresta (PR) and treatments consisted of combinations of herbicides to provide control of emerged plants of Sumatran fleabane (glyphosate + 2,4-D, MSMA and glufosinate), applied isolated or in tank mixes with residual herbicides (metsulfuron, chlorimuron, diclosulam, imazethapyr, imazaquin, flumioxazin, metribuzin, amicarbazone and isoxaflutole) which were expected to prevent the emergence and growth of new weed fluxes. At the time of herbicides application, Sumatran fleabane plants were no taller than 12 cm. Assessments on both efficacy and residual control were performed until soybean crop sowing (45 days after treatment). Glyphosate + 2,4-D mixture was efficient for burndown of Sumatran fleabane. For fallow periods of 45 days, all glyphosate + 2,4-D mixtures with residual herbicides were efficient for Sumatran fleabane control, providing less than 10 plants m-2 and a maximum plant height of 16 cm at soybean sowing date.

Highlighted Conclusion
Glyphosate + 2,4-D + residual herbicides, MSMA + metsulfuron or chlorimuron, glufosinate + metsulfuron, chlorimuron, diclosulam, metribuzin and amicarbazone are efficient for Sumatran fleabane control since these treatments provided very low infestations and limited growth of newly emerged plants at next sowing date.

Keywords: Conyza spp., Herbicide resistance, Tank mixes, EPSPs. (more…)

Burndown and pre-emergent herbicides for soybean

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 46-52, 2019 (2019008)

Weed management in soybean using burndown herbicides associated to pre-emergent herbicides

Carlos Orestes Santin, Robson Peruzzo, Leandro Galon, André Dalponte Menegat, Milena Barretta Franceschetti, Cinthia Maethê Holz, Josiel Ricardo Toni, Gismael Francisco Perin and César Tiago Forte*
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: The soybean crop has been playing a very important role in the agribusiness worldwide, including in Brazil. Among the pests that cause major problems to the crop are the weeds, because they are responsible by the reduction of the productivity and of the grain quality. On the face of it, this work aimed to evaluate the application of burndown herbicides associated to pre-emerging herbicides to the management of the soybean weeds. The experiment was carried out in the field, in area with no soil cover with fallow during the winter, in the randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments used were: diuron + sulfentrazone (490 + 245), [glyphosate + (diuron + sulfentrazone) – 1,440 + (420 + 210)], [glyphosate + (diuron + sulfentrazone) – 1,440 + (490 + 245)], glyphosate + 2,4-D (1,440 + 806), glyphosate + diclosulam (1,440 + 25.2), [glyphosate + (imazethapyr + flumioxazin) – 1,440 + (100 + 50)], glyphosate + saflufenacil (1,440 + 35), [ammonium-glufosinate + (diuron + sulfentrazone) – 400 + 490 + 245 g ha-1 de i.a], and two herbicide-free controls, weedy and weed-free. At the 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the emergency of the crop (DAE) the variables were evaluated, herbicide phytotoxicity on soybean and the weeds control, Digitaria ciliaris and Urochloa plantaginea. In the soybean harvest, the number of pods per plant was determined, the number of grains per pods, the mass of a thousand grains (g) and the grain productivity (kg ha-1). The phytotoxicity caused by herbicides to the soybean it was not over to 8% in all the evaluations realized. The control of the weeds, D. ciliaris and U. plantaginea were over to 90%, highlighting the effect of the pre-emerging herbicides in the maintaining of the control until the evaluation of the 28 DAE. In general, all the treatments involving the herbicides did not cause changes in the components of soybean crop yield, being statistically equal the weed-free control higher than the weedy control. The soybean presented an increase of 859.48% in grain yield when Digitaria ciliaris and of the Urochloa plantaginea was controlled.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The control of Digitaria ciliaris and Urochloa plantaginea is more efficient with the use of pre-emerging herbicides, mainly diuron + sulfentrazone and imazethapyr + flumioxazin.
2. The toxicity of herbicides to the soybean ‘NA 5909’ is low, with no visual intoxication symptoms from 28 days after emergency, and do not reduce the crop grain yield.
3. Digitaria ciliaris and Urochloa plantaginea can reduce by up to 88% the soybean grain yield if not controlled.
4. The soybean grain productivity can be increased by 859% when Digitaria ciliaris and Urochloa plantaginea are controlled.

Keywords: Glycine maxDigitaria ciliares,  Urochloa plantaginea. (more…)

Exogenous IBA and cutting times on tamarind rooting capacity

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 41-45, 2019 (2019007)

Effect of exogenous indolbutiric acid (IBA) applications and cuttings collection times on rooting capacity of sweet tamarind

Antonio Flávio Arruda Ferreira*, Marcela Sant’anna Cordeiro da Silva, Laís Naiara Honorato Monteiro, Mariane Jerônimo Forte, Glaucia Amorim Faria, Maria Gabriela Fontanetti Rodrigues and Aparecida Conceição Boliani
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: Considering its adaptation to tropical countries, sweet tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., Fabaceae) has been gaining space in the food and pharmaceutical industry due to its nutraceutical richness. The lack of research on the propagation of non-traditional tropical fruits has been a barrier to the production of large-scale seedlings and to the availability of products in the food and pharmaceutical markets. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of collection periods and exogenous indolbutiric acid (IBA) concentrations on rooting of softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood sweet tamarind cuttings, aiming the production of seedlings. For this, cuttings with 18 cm length were collected in winter and spring, being planted in polyethylene trays filled with medium texture vermiculite. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of Pad&Fan type with temperature and controlled humidity. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design (2 collection times x 3 types of cuttings x 5 concentrations of IBA) with four replicates of 10 cuttings. After 90 days, the following variables were evaluated: the percentage of rooted cuttings and dead cuttings; root number; length of the largest root (cm); and shoot number. It was observed that soft-wood cuttings had a higher rhizogenic capacity, influenced by the collection season, with winter being the best time. The highest percentage of dead cuttings was observed in semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings, both when collected in winter and in spring. The number of roots in soft-wood cuttings was higher in the 1,500 mg kg-1 concentration of exogenous IBA and when collected in winter this material also showed a higher number of shoots. It can be concluded that sweet tamarind softwood cuttings harvested in winter and treated with 1,500 mg kg-1 of exogenous IBA support the percentage of rooted cuttings, number of roots and shoots, showing a better rhizogenic capacity.

Highlighted Conclusion
The use of 1,500 mg kg-1 of exogenous IBA favors the rooting capacity of sweet tamarind softwood cuttings collected in the winter season.

Keywords: Tamarindus indica L., Propagating material, Propagation, Tropical fruit. (more…)

Floral production and age of Tacinga palmadora

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 36-40, 2019 (2019006)

Flowering of the endemic cactus Tacinga palmadora: a relation between floral production and age

Ayslan Trindade Lima*, Adryanne Arcanjo Costa and Marcos Vinícius Meiado
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: Plant age is a factor that influences production of flowers in some species. In some cacti, new cladodes and flowers buds grow from areolar meristems located in the cladodes. It is possible to determine the age of the cactus by counting the maximum number of cladodes present in a branch. Among the species of cacti that present annual vegetative growth determined by the climatic seasons is the species Tacinga palmadora. The objective of this study was to determine the initial reproductive age of this species and to evaluate the relation between the age of T. palmadora individuals and the number of flowers produced. The study was conducted at the Grota do Angico Natural Monument, in the municipality of Poço Redondo in Sergipe state in September 2017. Two hundred and seventeen individuals of T. palmadora were analyzed in the study area. In each individual, where counted the number of flowers and the number of cladodes present in the largest branch from the base, thus estimating the age of each individual. A positive and significant relation was observed between average number of flowers produced and age of individuals of T. palmadora in the evaluated population.

Highlighted Conclusion
Tacinga palmadora presents a greater number of flowers in older individuals due to the greater number of cladodes.

Keywords: Cladodes, Plant reproduction, Reproductive age, Quipá, Caatinga. (more…)

Pyraclostrobin reducing toxicity of fomesafen to bean

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 29-35, 2019 (2019005)

Application of pyraclostrobin as an alternative to reduce phytotoxification of fomesafen in common bean

Jaqueline Schmitt*, Wilian Jochem, Guilherme Romani de Mello, Juliano José Schiessel, Samyra Coratto Demartini, Samuel Luiz Fioreze, Antonio Mendes de Oliveira Neto and Naiara Guerra
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: The herbicide fomesafen is one of the few broadleaf herbicides for the post-emergence application in common bean. However, this application can cause phytointoxication to this crop, therefore the objective was to evaluate the application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin for reducing herbicide phytotoxification in common bean. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with ten treatments and four replicates. The treatments resulted from the combination of isolated or associated applications of fomesafen and pyraclostrobin at different stages of common bean development (V2, V3 and V4). We evaluated herbicide phytotoxicity, photosynthetic rate, weight of pods per plant, weight of 1,000 grams and grain yield. The injuries caused by fomesafen were low. The treatments did not affect both the photosynthetic rates and the yield components of bean. In general, the treatments that pyraclostrobin were applied had higher production. The application of pyraclostrobin favored the selectivity of herbicide fomesafen to common bean cultivar IPR Tangará.

Highlighted Conclusion
The application of pyraclostrobin favors the selectivity of herbicide fomesafen to common bean ‘IPR Tangará’.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, Strobilurin, PROTOX inhibitor herbicide, Selectivity. (more…)

The hidden half of Brazilian rice

Communications in Plant Sciences, vol 9, p. 20-28, 2019 (2019004)

The hidden half of Brazilian rice: putting roots on the table to better evidence the genetic variability available for breeding

Camila dos Santos Alves, Henrique Pasquetti Carbonari, Cristiano Stülp, Victoria Freitas de Oliveira, Maicon Nardino, Viviane Kopp da Luz, Eduardo Venske, Ariano Martins de Magalhães Jr. and Antonio Costa de Oliveira*
*Correspondence to:

Abstract: Assessing genetic variability is essential to crop breeding and represents the basis for a successful crop selection, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). Root system shows a large range of roles that could be improved genetically. However, it has been virtually neglected by most breeders. The objective was to characterize a selected sample of the Brazilian rice germplasm, regarding on root growth and development, and to combine this data to shoot traits, aiming to depict the genetic variability within this germplasm. Sixteen Brazilian accessions of rice were analyzed with basis on root and shoot traits in two distinct experiments, mainly cultivars launched in the past four decades and presenting unique characteristics. The first experiment was carried out at hydroponic conditions to evaluate the performance of rice accessions during the seedling stage. The second was carried out in long PVC tubes to assay the rice accessions at the reproductive period. Traits were treated individually as well as analyzed jointly by different multivariate methods of genetic variability assessment. Most of the rice accessions showed similar results for a part of the studied traits, however differences were observed for some traits. The clustering methods agreed to group a large number of rice accessions into a single group, distinguishing only the best performing genotypes.

Highlighted Conclusions
1) The genetic variability within a group of Brazilian rice accessions is narrow when based on both root and shoot traits.
2) The accessions BRS Pampeira, at seedling period, and BRS Pampa, at reproductive stage, show prominent root performance, being promising parents for breeding programs focused on root system improvements.

Keywords: Genetic distance, Soil-free phenotyping, Trait-based breeding. (more…)