Germination biology of Solanum americanum

Biology of germination of Solanum americanum: a weed ascending in Brazilian crops
Milena Barretta Franceschetti1, Leandro Galon1, Ubirajara Russi Nunes2, Rodrigo Roso2, André Dalponte Menegat1, Leonardo Brunetto1, Geovana Facco Barbieri2, Alessandra Gallina1 and Cesar Tiago Forte2
1Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Erechim, RS, Brasil.
2Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

Abstract
Solanum americanum is a weed found in many important crops and is characterized by high production of fruits and seeds. Knowledge of the biology of the species is essential for efficient weed control so that the best control strategies and combinations thereof can be developed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the environmental factors that affect germination and emergence of S. americanum. Six experiments were conducted in the laboratory, simulating field situations in which germination was tested under different pH conditions, osmotic and saline stress, the effect of aluminum content, and different covers and straw levels. Germination and seedling emergence were evaluated, depending on the objectives of the experiment. We found that the germination changed according to the increase in salinity and the decrease in osmotic potential of the soil. The same was observed to the soil cover and its levels, as the emergence rate decreased with the increase in the amount of straw. Germination was reduced at alkaline pH (9-10). Aluminum had no effect on germination, only on normal seed development.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Increasing the amount of straw in the soil reduced the germination of S. americanum.
2. At alkaline pH, germination of S. americanum was reduced.
3. Aluminum had a negative influence on the development of S. americanum.

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Legume ecosystemic services

Legume ecosystemic services in agro-ecosystems: a review
Mohamed Lazali1 and Jean Jacques Drevon2
1Laboratoire de recherche ERP, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie et des Sciences de la Terre. Université de Khemis Miliana, Algérie.
2Université de Montepplier, UMR Ecologie Fonctionnelle & Biogéochimie des Sols et Agroécosystèmes, INRAE-IRD-CIRAD-SupAgro. Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France.

Abstract
Legumes are a pivotal component of the agro-ecosystems and sustainable agriculture worldwide and are of immense importance for providing food to the ever-growing population. Legumes are also a significant source of fodder and are grown on a large scale in the semi-arid tropics including Africa, Asia and Latin America. They deliver several important services to societies as sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen to agro-ecosystems via their unique ability to fix atmospheric N2 in symbiosis with the soil bacteria rhizobia, thus stimulating the productivity of the associated or following crops. They contribute efficiently to agro-ecosystems services through low reliance on synthetic N fertilizers, reduced greenhouse-gas emissions, increased diversification of crop rotations with concomitant increases in above- and below-ground biodiversity, soil fertility, carbon storage and changes in weed, pest, and disease pressures. This review examines how the inclusion of legumes in redesigned cropping and forage systems might assist in reducing the environmental risk associated with the need to further increase the production of food, forage, and fiber while addressing the current reliance on N fertilizer to maintain high crop yields in most of the planet’s agro-ecosystems.

Highlighted Conclusion
Legumes fix the atmospheric nitrogen, release in the soil high-quality organic matter and facilitate soil nutrients’ circulation and water retention. Based on these multiple functions, legume crops have high potential for conservation agriculture, being functional either as growing crop or as crop residue.

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Phytoremediation strategies and prospects for contaminated soils

Strategies and prospects in the recovery of contaminated soils by phytoremediation: an updated overview
Jhonatan da Silva1, Gabriel Bachega Rosa2, William Gustavo Sganzerla3, Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze2, Flávio José Simioni1 and Mari Lucia Campos1
1University of the State of Santa Catarina – Center of Agroveterinary Sciences (UDESC-CAV), Lages, SC, Brazil.
2Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology (IFSC), Lages, SC, Brazil.
3University of Campinas (UNICAMP), School of Food Engineering (FEA), Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Abstract
The contamination of soils and groundwater has attracted worldwide attention, since many contaminants are poorly biodegradable and can accumulate in living organisms, causing implications for plants, animals, and human health. The high cost of conventional remediation processes stimulates research for the development of innovative and more sustainable techniques. Likewise, phytoremediation is a cheap technology that uses plants to absorb, transform, and detoxify contaminants through in situ (phytoextraction, phytotransformation, and phytovolatilization) and ex situ mechanisms (phytostabilization and phytostimulation). Recently, phytoremediation has been adopted as a more profitable technique than physicochemical processes. Otherwise, the existence of variables, such as interactions between climate, soil, and plants, requires analysis methods for its implementation, which ensure the reduction of time and cost and improve its efficiency. Research on the application of different phytoremediation techniques is still in progress, and therefore, this study evaluated the main advantages of phytoremediation through a literature overview, comparing the most adequate remediation models in terms of economic, social, and environmental aspects.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Phytoremediation consists of the use of plants and their associated microbes for environmental cleanup and recovery of contaminate soil.
2. Phytoremediation promotes social-economics benefits comparing to the conventional techniques, and ensures sustainability in environmental rehabilitation.

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Alexandergrass interference periods on soybean

Periods of interference of Alexandergrass on morphophysiological and productive characteristics of transgenic soybean
Leandro Galon, Alessandro Konzen, Hugo Von Linsingen Piazzetta, Germani Concenço, Maico André, Michelon Bagnara, Antonio Marcos Loureiro da Silva and Gismael Francisco Perin
Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Erechim, RS, Brasil.

Abstract
Among the weed species infesting soybean, Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea) is highlighted as one of the most competitive. The objective of this work was to determine the periods of interference of Alexandergrass, and is effects, on morphophysiology and yield components of soybean. Treatments were pooled into two groups: the group “convivence” comprised soybean growing among Alexandergrass for increasing periods: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after emergence (DAE), as well as along all the crop cycle. The “control” group comprised soybean free from competition for the same time lapses. Forty-two DAE, soybean morphophysiology was assessed. There was no effect of the time lpse of Alexandergrass “control” or “convivence” on soybean physiological performance. Plant height, stem diameter, plant dry mass, leaf area and grain yield components of soybean were, however, affected by Alexandergrass. The critical period of interference prevention comprises 26-41 DAE; the period prior to interference is 26 DAE; and the total period of interference prevention is 41 DAE.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The yield components of soybean are negatively affected by Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea) interference.
2. The control and coexistence periods of Alexandergrass did not change the physiological traits of soybean plants.
3. The critical periods of interference of Alexandergrass in competition with soybean were 26, 41 and 26 – 41 days, respectively for PAI, PTPI and PCPI.

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Soybean protein determination with adenylyl cyclase

Identification and characterization of a soybean protein with adenylyl cyclase activity
Enetia Desberia Bobo, Katlego Selaelo Sehlabane, Tshegofatso Bridget Dikobe, Mutsa Monica Takundwa, David Tonderai Kawadza and Oziniel Ruzvidzo
North-West University, Mmabatho, North West, South Africa.

Abstract
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a high value leguminous crop characterized by its excellent protein content and ability to improve soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Whereas this plant has attractive human and animal feed attributes in addition to its pharmaceutical and industrial uses, its growth and yield are severely affected by drought. Thus any research aimed at understanding the genome response of this plant to drought and other related environmental stress factors would be worthwhile. In plants, in general, second messengers have a key role in linking and coordinating environmental stimuli to cellular communication and responses. One group of such messengers are adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and their catalytic product 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), involved in plant growth, cell division, reproduction, development and response to stress. However, while ACs have been reported in some plant species such as Arabidopsis and maize, their presence together with their cAMP-dependent systems in G. max have largely remained unavailable. Fortunately, a putative molecule, Glyma.07G251000 (accession number: XP_003529590), with a predicted function as an AC in G. max has at some point been reported. This molecule harbors a domain annotated AC catalytic center and therefore, was herein targeted for study. In order to characterize the Glyma.07G251000, we cloned and expressed it, followed by purification of the resultant recombinant protein (GmAC). When tested in vitro for AC activity, the GmAC protein showed a Mn2+-dependent activity that is positively enhanced by calcium. GmAC also complemented the AC-deficiency (cyaA mutation) of an SP850 mutant strain when expressed in Escherichia coli. When analysed by a web-based approach system, the GmAC protein was found to be co-expressed and co-regulated with various other proteins responsible for early plant development and stress response, strongly suggesting that it has a central role in these two key cellular processes. In addition, the GmAC protein conferred stress resistance to EXPRESS BL21 (DE3) pLysS DUOs cells when expressed in these host cells under salt (200 mM NaCl) and oxidative stress (0.2 mM H2O2). Conceivably, our findings showed that GmAC is an AC protein with a role in early plant development and stress response.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. GmAC is an adenylyl cyclase and the first ever such protein to be identified in soybean.
2. GmAC confers stress tolerance to Escherichia coli and is co-expressed/co-regulated with other soybean proteins responsible for early plant development and stress response.

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Storage time and potato quality

Quality of potato tubers according to the storage time
Helis Marina Salomão1, Adriano Suchoronczek2, Sidnei Osmar Jadoski3, Andréia Suchoronczek4, Katia Cristina Dalpiva Hartmann1 and Janaina Cosmedamiana Metinoski Bueno2
1Federal University of Technology, Pato Branco, PR, Brazil.
2Faculdade Mater Dei, Pato Branco, PR, Brasil.
3UNICENTRO, Cedeteg, PR, Brasil.
4Biologist, Master’s in Biology.

Abstract
The storage of potato tubers, even for short periods, is essential to stabilize the supply of the product on the market. However, it can affect several physicochemical and biochemical properties of the product, negatively impacting its quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage time on the physical and biochemical properties of two potato cultivars. Potato tubers of Ágata and Atlantic cultivars were stored at room temperature for 35 days. At 0, 7, 21, and 35 days of storage, analyses of pulp firmness, total soluble sugar contente (ºBrix), dry mass contente (MS), and tuber mass loss were performed. Also, the activity of the enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), the hydrogen peroxide contente (H2O2), total soluble sugars (AT), and reducing sugars (AR) was monitored. The reduction in pulp firmness was linear for both cultivars and is related to the loss of tuber mass. The observed decrease in enzymatic activity is a negative factor as it reduces the ability to defend against oxidative stress. The reduction in the sugar content is interesting, as it maintains the quality of the tubers, especially for industrial processing.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Potato tubers of cultivars Ágata and Atlantic stored under ambient conditions showed loss of fresh mass, reduced firmness, and increased soluble sugar content.
2. The cultivars Ágata and Atlantic can be stored for up to 35 days under ambient conditions without damaging their physicochemical quality significantly.

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Effects of herbicides on quality of bean seeds

Quality of bean seeds submitted to doses of desiccant herbicides at application periods
Camile Tais Castoldi, Leandro Galon, Lauri Lourenço Radünz, Josiel Ricardo Toni, Francisco Wilson Reichert Júnior, Mauricio Albertoni Scariot, Daniel de Oliveira e Souza and Gismael Francisco Perin
Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Erechim, RS, Brasil.

Abstract
In view of the high nitrogen availability required by soybean, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria, such as Bradyrhizobium japonicum, is an economically viable option. Moreover, the co-inoculation of these microorganisms with plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Azospirillum brasilense, presents high efficiency compared to the isolated use of these microorganisms. Given the above, the study aimed to determine the effects of applying a soil bio-activator associated with the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum brasilense bacteria, on morphometric, physiological and productive variables of soybean crop. The experiment was conducted in the field, in a randomized block design with four replicates. The treatments were: control; seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum; seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense; application of soil bio-activator; seed inoculation with B. japonicum and A. brasilense; seed inoculation with B. japonicum and application of soil bio-activator; seed inoculation with A. brasilense and application of soil bio-activator; and seed inoculation with B. japonicum and A. brasilense and application of soil bio-activator. In the morphometric analysis, plants inoculated with B. japonicum presented a greater number of nodules compared to the control. The co-inoculation associated with use of soil bio-activator increased the chlorophyll relative content, at the beginning of the cycle, in 6.37% in relation to the control. In gas exchange analysis, the isolated use of soil bio-activator obtained higher intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in V4. No increases in relation to the control were observed in the other variables evaluated, rejecting the hypothesis that co-inoculation associated with the use of soil bio-activator would promote increases in morphometric, physiological and productive characteristics of the soybean crop.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Harvesting bean seeds with water contents of 30 and 42% and without the application of desiccants provided the best physical and sanitary quality of the seeds.
2. The desiccation in bean seeds using the recommended average dose increases electrical conductivity, reduces the hectoliter weight, and causes a loss in sanitary quality of the seeds.
3. It is feasible the application glufosinate-ammonium, saflufenacil, and diquat for anticipating harvest when 50% of the recommended average dose is used.

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Soil activator to inoculates bacteria in soybeans

Inoculation and co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum brasilense in soybean crop with the use of soil bio-activator
Victor Matheus Röske¹*, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães², Tauane Santos Brito², Alexandre Wegner Lerner², Roberto Cecatto Junior², André Silas Lima Silva² and Michele Aline Anklan²
1C. Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, Palotina, Paraná, Brasil.
2Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, Brasil.

Abstract
In view of the high nitrogen availability required by soybean, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria, such as Bradyrhizobium japonicum, is an economically viable option. Moreover, the co-inoculation of these microorganisms with plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Azospirillum brasilense, presents high efficiency compared to the isolated use of these microorganisms. Given the above, the study aimed to determine the effects of applying a soil bio-activator associated with the inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum brasilense bacteria, on morphometric, physiological and productive variables of soybean crop. The experiment was conducted in the field, in a randomized block design with four replicates. The treatments were: control; seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum; seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense; application of soil bio-activator; seed inoculation with B. japonicum and A. brasilense; seed inoculation with B. japonicum and application of soil bio-activator; seed inoculation with A. brasilense and application of soil bio-activator; and seed inoculation with B. japonicum and A. brasilense and application of soil bio-activator. In the morphometric analysis, plants inoculated with B. japonicum presented a greater number of nodules compared to the control. The co-inoculation associated with use of soil bio-activator increased the chlorophyll relative content, at the beginning of the cycle, in 6.37% in relation to the control. In gas exchange analysis, the isolated use of soil bio-activator obtained higher intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in V4. No increases in relation to the control were observed in the other variables evaluated, rejecting the hypothesis that co-inoculation associated with the use of soil bio-activator would promote increases in morphometric, physiological and productive characteristics of the soybean crop.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The use of soil bio-activator associated with inoculation and coinoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Azospirillum brasilense does not provide increases in morphometric, physiological, and productive variables of the soybean crop.
2. Further studies are needed on the influence of soil bio-activators on the bacteria used in this study, enabling further verification of their applicability.

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3-IAA on in vitro rooting and acclimatization of apple rootstock

In vitro rooting and acclimatization of ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock using indole-3-acetic acid from rhizobacteria
Juliana Aparecida Souza1,3, Jean Carlos Bettoni1, Murilo Dalla Costa2, Tiago Celso Baldissera2, João Frederico Mangrich dos Passos2 and Silmar Primieri3
1The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Palmerston North, Manawatu, New Zealand.
2Agricultural Research and Rural Extension of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
3Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Abstract
Rooting tissue-cultured shoots and acclimatizing the rooted plantlets are key final steps in successful micropropagation protocols. We assessed the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from synthetic and biological sources for effects on in vitro rhizogenesis and acclimatization stages in micropropagated ‘Marubakaido’ (Malus prunifolia) apple rootstock. Shoots of 3 cm length were transferred to rooting medium, composed of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with up to 2 mg L-1 AIA and grown for 60 days in a controlled environment before assessment. Root initiation rate, callus formation, dry-root biomass, dry-shoot biomass, root length, root volume and diameter were evaluated. After the acclimatization stage, survival rate was determined. The root initiation rate of micropropagated ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock was higher in culture media supplemented with IAA, independent of the source. Callus formation at the base of shoots was higher according to increases of synthetic IAA concentration. In contrast, there was no callus formation from shoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with bacterial. ‘Marubakaido’ shoots rooted in vitro were successfully acclimatized. Survival of the plantlets during acclimatization was affected by both IAA concentration and source. Plant survival rate at the acclimatization stage decreased from 96% to 66% as the concentration of synthetic IAA increased. ‘Marubakaido’ inoculated in MS medium supplemented with bacterial IAA had thinner roots without callus formation, resulting in higher survival (up to 98 %) during acclimatization. Strain N39 was particularly effective in inducing in vitro rooting and acclimatization of ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock, resulting in high-quality rooted plantlets.

Highlighted Conclusion
1. Supplementation with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced by rhizobacteria during in vitro rooting of apple rootstock increased survival rates at the acclimatization stage, and may be an efficient and sustainable alternative to synthetic IAA within micropropagation protocols.

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Heritability and genetic distance from s1 maize progenies

Heritability estimates and genetic distance of s1 progenies from landrace maize populations
Mauricio Ferrari1, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho2*, Alan Junior de Pelegrin1, Vinícius Jardel Szareski1, Maicon Nardino1, Tiago Corazza da Rosa1, Nathan Löbler dos Santos1, Tamires da Silva Martins1, Velci Queiróz de Souza3, Antonio Costa de Oliveira1 and Luciano Carlos da Maia1
1Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brasil.
2Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brasil.
3Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brasil.

Abstract
The aim of study to estimate the broad sense heritability of S1 progenies and to quantify the genetic variance through multivariate analyzes of S1 progenies from landrace maize populations grown in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. The experimental design utilized was the augmented blocks, with ten S1 progenies groups (Amarelão, Argentino Branco, Argentino Amarelo, Branco Vermelho Indio, Branco Oito Carreiras, Caiano Rajado, Cateto Branco, Criolão Dente de Ouro and BRS Planalto), and two commercial controls, the simple cross hybrids Pioneer 30F53 and Agroeste 1590, allocated in four repetitions. The traits grain depth and spike insertion height express the largest estimates of broad sense heritability. The S1 progeny Argentino Amarelo provides the largest estimates of broad sense heritability for the set of evaluated traits. The S1 progenies Caiano Rajado, Criolão, Branco Roxo Índio, BRS Planalto, Dente de Ouro, Amarelão and Branco Oito Carreiras have similar heritability patterns for the studied traits, allowing to employ a similar selection strategy in the next generations. The S1 progenies from landrace maize populations present genetic variability for the agronomic traits studied.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The traits grain depth and spike insertion height express the largest estimates of broad sense heritability.
2. The S1 progeny Argentino Amarelo provides the largest estimates of broad sense heritability for the set of evaluated traits.
3. The S1 progenies Caiano Rajado, Criolão, Branco Roxo Índio, BRS Planalto, Dente de Ouro, Amarelão and Branco Oito Carreiras have similar heritability patterns for the studied traits, allowing to employ a similar selection strategy in the next generations.
4. The S1 progenies from landrace maize populations present genetic variability for the agronomic traits studied.

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