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Drought on early development of wheat genotypes

Morphologically accessing wheat genotypes in response to drought on early stages of development
Rebeca Catanio Fernandes, Victoria Freitas de Oliveira, Luciana Dallegrave Schroeder, Alice Pereira de Jesus, Carlos Busanello, Mateus Ferreira Santos, Vívian Ebeling Viana, Antonio Costa de Oliveira and Camila Pegoraro
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brasil

Abstract
As an alternative to decrease the internal deficit of wheat production in Brazil is the expansion of the cultivation area to the Cerrado, in which the occurrence of drought periods is common, causing damage when it occurs during the crop establishment and during the reproductive stage, thus develop genotypes tolerant to dry environments is essential. Development of drought-tolerant genotypes depends on the presence of genetic variability, thus the identify the variability within the accessions cultivated in Brazil allows the selection of genotypes with tolerance levels for use in crossing blocks. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify wheat genotypes displaying drought tolerance in the early stages of development through morphological characterization. In this sense, here we investigate 104 wheat genotypes cultivated in Brazil in response to drought at early stage of development. The seeds were deposited on germination paper with water and with PEG6000 at -0.5 MPa solution, simulating the control and drought stress conditions, respectively, and were kept in a germination chamber for eight days. The number of roots, root and shoot length, and root and shoot dry mass were measured, and a relative performance was calculated. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, Scoot Knott test and a Pearson correlation. The genetic distance was calculated based on the Euclidean distance and for the grouping the UPGMA method was applied. The principal component analysis was also performed. Based on the shoot and root phenotyping, it was possible to verify that the evaluated wheat panel displayed genetic variability associated with drought and present potential genotypes to drought tolerance on early stages of development, as FPS Nitron, which is a target genotype as a genitor to be used in crossing blocks aiming drought tolerance.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The wheat genotypes growing in Brazil present genetic diversity in response to drought stress at early developmental stages.
2. FPS Nitron was less affected in drought stress condition which suggest its inclusion in crossing blocks.
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Monocot weeds on Guinea grass

Guinea grass yield under interference of monocotyledon weeds
Prissila Pereira dos Santos e Araújo, Ricardo Fagundes Marques, Guilherme Henrique Rodrigues Pinheiro, Rodrigo Marques de Souza and Sidnei Roberto de Marchi
Universidade Federal de Goiás, Antônio Cândido, GO, Brasil

Abstract
Pastures are the main source of food for herds; thus, it is essential to understand the interference relationships between forage species and weeds to use management strategies properly and to obtain forage production with satisfactory nutritional value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of coexistence with major monocotyledonous weeds on the alteration of the canopy structure and the productive components of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Guinea under pasture reform condition. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with four replications, and the treatments were represented by increasing periods of coexistence, namely: 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after seedling emergence. Forage plants were evaluated at 90 days after emergence for their main structural and productive characteristics. The findings show that the presence of monocotyledon weeds negatively interferes in the structural and productive aspects of P. maximum Jacq. cv Guinea. Therefore, control measures should be adopted using a period before interference (PBI) less than sixteen days of coexistence with the monocotyledon weed community.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Increased period of coexistence with weeds affects the Guinea grass leaf:stem ratio.
2. Guinea grass leaf volumetric density is negatively affected by an increased period of coexistence with weeds.
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History of registry of soybean cultivars in Brazil

Two decades of national registry of soybean cultivars: updates and perspectives
Jardel Bazzan Dorneles1, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho1, Tamires da Silva Martins2, Natã Balssan Moura1, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva1 and Francine Lautenchleger3
1Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brasil
2Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brasil
3Universidade do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR, Brasil

Abstract
The aim was to reveal the trend and the pattern of registration of soybean cultivars in Brazil in recent decades and to contrast with future perspectives. This is a study carried out in 2019 at the Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul – UNIJUÍ, where data were collected from 1998 to 2018. The online databases of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA) were used, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT) and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), for data collection, the criterion used was that the cultivar was properly registered on the National Register of Cultivars (NRC) platform. In general, the aspects according to each year of launch of the cultivars are in favor of the best performance of the crop. They are correlated in the following modifications: plant architecture, resistance, seed size, indeterminate growth habit, flower colors, pods, hilums, presence of anthocyanin, peroxidase, seed brightness, densities and registered genotypes. With neural networks it was possible to classify 1818 soybean genotypes, divided into 18 profiles, also based on the search for 68 characters presenting 19 trends. With the work it was concluded that the year of launch of the cultivar is associated with: the intrinsic characteristics of the maintainer of the cultivar, the biotechnological event, the characteristics of the growth habit and the colorations of the flower, of the seed pod and of the hypocotyl. As the forecast is that in the coming decades new cultivars will be launched in Brazil, a correct positioning of specific genotypes for different environments is needed.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The profile of traits of soybean cultivars has changed over the decades.
2. Brazilian soybean cultivars can be classified into 18 characteristic profiles.
3. The new cultivars are dependent on changes in the internal and external market.
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Saline stress tolerance by gibberelin in cactus

Gibberellic acid provides greater tolerance to saline stress in cactus seed germination
Ayslan Trindade Lima, Beatriz Araújo Oliveira and Marcos Vinicius Meiado
Federal University of Sergipe, Itabaiana, SE, Brazil

Abstract
It is important to understand the ecophysiological behavior and develop techniques applicable to conservation measures of species that inhabit arid and semi-arid ecosystem and are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) application during seed germination under saline stress conditions of a cactus. Pilosocereus gounellei susbp gounellei seeds were submitted to NaCl saline solutions at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9 MPa. For each osmotic potential, GA3 concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm were used. The results indicated that salt stress reduces germination percentage and synchronization as seeds are submitted to more negative osmotic potentials, as well as delaying germination time. However, this negative effect of NaCl was reversed when the seeds were subjected to the specific concentration of 100 ppm of gibberellic acid. Therefore, our study demonstrated that the application of GA3 at specific concentration improves the germinative metabolism of cactus seeds and promotes the acquisition of tolerance to saline stress conditions by increasing germinability, reducing germination time and increasing synchronization, thus representing a viable technique for seed germination and seedlings production under adverse environmental conditions.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The application of GA3 at specific concentration improves the germinative metabolism of cactus seeds and promotes the acquisition of tolerance to saline stress conditions.
2. The application of GA3 represents a viable technique for seed germination and seedlings production under adverse environmental conditions.
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K salts inhancing herbicide action

Influence of K salts in enhanced herbicide activity
Deivid Araújo Magano1, Jerson V. Carús Guedes2, Shyam Pariyar3, Juergen Burkhardt3, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho1, José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva1 and Mauricio Hunsche3
1 Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brasil
2 Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil
3 University of Bonn, Bonn, Alemanha

Abstract
Maximize process of pest control reducing loss in the agriculture process is fundamental. The aim this research was to achieve a different way to increase the herbicide activity, using potassium salts. Some experiments were conduct to analyze the efficiency of salts in enhanced the activity of two selected herbicides (paraquat and bromoxynil). Firstly, we checked the effects of chaotropic and kosmotropic potassium salts and their capability to cause damage in the foliar tissue, and made a dosage adequate to avoid these undesirable effects. Later on, we analyze the physiological impairments due salts using PAM-Fluorecence techniques, employing different kind of arrays to verify, the response and ability to increase the real damage in foliar tissues. The best performance was obtained with multiple droplets applied 48 hours earlier than herbicides, promoting an increase of 2 times more efficacy, for paraquat and bromoxynil.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. There is interaction between K salt and herbicides.
2. Microencapsulated herbicides consist in a strategy to combine with K salts.
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Top-dressing N management and wheat yield components

Path analysis between yield components of wheat under different top-dressing nitrogen management
Alan Junior de Pelegrin1, Maicon Nardino2, Mauricio Ferrari3, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho4, Vinicius Jardel Szareski3, Antonio Costa de Oliveira1, Velci Queiróz de Souza5 and Luciano Carlos da Maia1
1 Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, RS, Brasil
2 Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brasil
3 SLC Agrícola, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
4 Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijuí, RS, Brasil
5 Universidade Federal do Pampa, São Gabriel, RS, Brasil

Abstract
There is little research that addresses associations between the yield of wheat grains and their components in different managements of nitrogen fertilization top dressing. The objective this work linear estimate associations cause and effect between production components and the yield grains in the difference scenarios nitrogen (N) management in top dressing wheat two crops 2012 and 2013. Experimental design was randomized blocks, arranged scheme split-split-plot, with three genotypes × two crops × two source N × four management in top dressing. (3×2×2×4), in the three replications. Linear correlation and path analysis were estimate in the different N management. Management N in top dressing change magnitude linear associations in the wheat. Number fertile tillers independent management in top dressing have positive relation of cause and effect with yield grains in the wheat. Mass grains spike principal in the management II, III and IV prove positive relation cause and effect with yield grains in the wheat.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Nitrogen management top dressing changes magnitude of linear association.
2. Number fertile tillers has positive cause relation with yield grains in wheat.
3. Mass of grains of main spike can have positive-causal relation with wheat yield grains depending on the top-dressing management.
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Controlled release nitrogen pairing on lettuce

Univariate and multivariate controlled release nitrogen pairing on lettuce culture performance
Luiz Leonardo Ferreira1, Alex Ribeiro Bastos1, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho2, Marilaine de Sá Fernandes1, Núbia Sousa Carrijo dos Santos1, Ariana Bertola Carnevale1 and Priscila Ferreira Batista1
1 Centro Universitário de Mineiros, Unidade de Biociências, GO, Brasil
2 Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brasil

Abstract
There are few studies in the literature that demonstrate the behavior of controlled release nitrogen fertilization in lettuce crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate, through univariate and multivariate pairing, the behavior of controlled release nitrogen sources on the performance of lettuce culture. The studies were conducted at the Horta dos Coqueiros property in Mineiros-GO, Brazil. The soil analyzes were taken before the experiment implementation, in the 0 to 20 cm layer, the soil was classified as NEOSSOL Quartzarenic. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, with a 2x2x5 factorial design corresponding to 2 lettuce genotypes (Americana cv. Lucy Brow and Crespa cv. Vanda), submitted to two controlled release N sources (NitroMais and Polyblen). doses (0, 75, 150, 225, 300 kg ha-1 of N) performing 4 repetitions. Transplantation occurred 20 days after sowing in trays, with plant spacing of 30×30. Data collection occurred 45 days after transplantation used 5 central plants of each plot. The analyzes were performed in the Rbio R interface, besides the Genes Software. The analysis of variance revealed triple interaction among the variables. Quadratic effect was expressed for both genotypes on protected nitrogen sources. For high performance of lettuce cultura in the Americana genotype cv. Lucy Brown recommends the application of protected nitrogen Polyblen at a concentration of 217.50 and NitroMais at 174.38 kg ha-1 of N, as well as the source Polyblen at a dose of 146.50 kg ha-1 of N in the genotype Crespa cv. Vanda.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. High performance of lettuce crop in the genotype Americana cv. Lucy Brown recommends the application of controlled release nitrogen Polyblen at a concentration of 217.50 and NitroMais at 174.38 kg ha-1 of N.
2. In the Crespa cv. Vanda, the Polyblen source is at a dose of 146.50 kg ha-1 of N.
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Weed seed viability affected by pre-harvest herbicide

Pre-harvest herbicide application reduces the Italian ryegrass seed viability
Joanei Cechin1, Alcimar Mazon1, Silvio Thiago de Oliveira Raphaelli1, Dirceu Agostinetto1 and Leandro Vargas2
1 Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS, Brasil
2 Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Trigo), Passo Fundo-RS, Brasil

Abstract
Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is a troublesome weed found in temperate agricultural fields, wherein the future infestations depend on the soil seed bank. The aim of this research was to evaluate Italian ryegrass seed viability subjected to herbicide application in different phenological stages of development. Experiments were carried out in a completely randomized experimental design with four repetitions. Paraquat, ammonium-glufosinate, iodosulfuron-methyl and clethodim herbicides were applied in three development stages (pre-spike, anthesis, and grain filling) and compared to the control. The effects were evaluated by percentage of control at seven, 14, and 28 days after application (DAA), seeds per plant, 1000 seeds weight, and percentage of germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, viable and non-viable dormant seeds. Control was greater than 97% at 28 DAA, with a decrease of more 90% for seed per plant, and strong reduction of 1000 seeds weight for the herbicides applied up to the anthesis stage. At the grain filling stage, clethodim reduced seed production by 18% and 1000-seeds weight by 36% compared to the control. Ammonium-glufosinate and paraquat herbicides applied up to the anthesis stage reduced seed viability by more than 98%. Overall, herbicide application reduces seed production, seed weight and viability, especially when applied before the grain filling stage.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Herbicide application up to the anthesis developmental stages reduces seed production, 1000 seeds weight, and seed viability.
2. Paraquat was the best herbicide to reduce seed production per plant, 1000-seeds weight and, viability of Italian ryegrass seeds, regardless of development stages.
3. Reducing future infestations of Italian ryegrass in cropping systems depends on herbicide application before the grain filling.
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Inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense in corn

Cause and effect relationships, multivariate approach for inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense in corn
Luiz Leonardo Ferreira1, Gean Ferreira Santos1, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho2, Marilaine de Sá Fernandes1, Ariana Bertola Carnevale1, Karine Lopes1, Roselaine Lages Fonseca Prado1, Francine Lautenchleger3, Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira4 and Carmen Rosa da Silva Curvêlo4
1 Centro Universitário de Mineiros, Unidade de Biociências, GO, Brazil
2 Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Estudos Agrários, RS, Brazil
3 Universidade do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR, Brazil
4 Instituto Federal Goiano, IF Goiano, Urutaí, Mineiros, GO, Brazil

Abstract
Beneficial bacteria to corn crop, such as Azospirillum brasilense, can bring consistent gains for the farmer. In this sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the cause and effect relationships and multivariate approach of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation in corn genotypes. The study was conducted in the municipality of Mineiros-GO, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block in 12×2 factorial, corresponding to twelve corn hybrids (20A78, 2B587, 2B610, 30F53, CD3770, CD384, DKB310, LG36701, LG6030, MG652, P3646 and PB9110), submitted to (absence and presence) of A. brasilense. The soil preparation was carried out in the conventional system with population of 60 thousand plants. Formulated 8-25-15 at a dose of 480 kg ha-1 was used. Pest control was performed when necessary. At the end of the experiment the variables were taken. The obtained data were submitted to the assumptions of the statistical model, verifying the normality and homogeneity of the residual variances, as well as the additivity of the model. Analyzes were performed at the Rbio interface of R and Genes. The summary analysis of variance with the mean square MS and significance by the F test revealed significant interaction between hybrid x A. brasilense. Corn hybrids showed higher expressiveness in yield components in the presence of Azospirillum brasilense applied in seed treatment. The number of grains per ear and the thousand grain mass were directly responsible for the increase of corn hybrids yield in the presence and absence of Azospirillum brasilense.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. Corn hybrids showed higher expressiveness in yield components in the presence of Azospirillum brasilense applied in seed treatment.
2. The number of grains per ear and the thousand grain mass were directly responsible for the increase of corn hybrids yield in the presence and absence of Azospirillum brasilense.
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Characterization of cassava production

Characterization of cassava production in the Igarapé-Açu community, Capitão Poço, Pará, Brazil
Samara Ketely Almeida de Sousa1*, Helen Patrícia Moreira Negrão1, Letícia do Socorro Cunha2, Thiago Feliph Silva Fernandes3, Júlia Karoline Rodrigues das Mercês3, Wanderson Cunha Pereira4, Edmilson Barbosa do Nascimento1, Marlon Sheldon da Silva Galdino1 and Amanda Catarine Ribeiro da Silva1
1 Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Capitão Poço, PA, Brazil
2 State University of Western Paraná, Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil
3 Paulista State University Júlio Mesquita de Filho, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
4 Federal University of Pará, Bragança, PA, Brazil

Abstract
The objective was to characterize the cultivation of cassava by rural producers in the Igarapé-Açu community, in the municipality of Capitão Poço, Pará, Brazil. The research involved quali-quantitative methods. For this purpose, 45 semi-structured questionnaires were applied, which included all the cassava flour producers in the Vila, in order to obtain information about the cassava and cassava flour production system, such as: size of the cultivation area, varieties used, labor used and ways of preparing the soil for cultivation. Most respondents are small farmers with an area of less than 5 ha. The cassava variety most cultivated by farmers in the village of Igarapé-Açu is mullet and about 56% of producers use exclusively family labor. As for the preparation of the soil, 40% of the interviewees perform the felling and burning. This form of tillage predominates due to the absence of technologies and causes the soil to be degraded more quickly.

Highlighted Conclusions
1. The predominant farming areas characterize family farming.
2. Producers prefer to use the mullet variety because it is easy to adapt to the region.
3. Soil preparation is still incipient in terms of the technologies used for conservationw.
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